LEDs anschließen

Der folgende Beitrag soll eine kleine Hilfe beim anschließen von LEDs an elektronischen Komponenten wie zum Beispiel am Arduino sein.

Beim Anschluss einer LED ist es am besten das Datenblatt der verwendeten LED genau zu lesen. Dort werden die Werte der LED benannt, die Ihr zum Anschluss benötigt. Die im Beitrag verwendeten Daten beziehen sich auf Standardwerte und können je nach Typ eurer LED abweichen.

Beim Anschluss der LED ist auf die Polung zu achten. Standart LEDs in 3mm/5mm Ausführung haben die Beine unterschiedliche längen. Daran lässt sich erkennen, welches Anode und welches die Kathode ist. Das längere Bein ist die Anode (+ Pol) und das kurze Bein ist die Kathode (- Pol). Desweiteren findet man in der Regel eine Abflachung am Kunststoff der LED auf der Kathodenseite. Die LED muss mit der korrekten Polung angeschlossen werden, da die Diode sonst sperrt. LEDs haben eine sehr geringe Sperrspannung und eine Überschreitung kann zum sofortigen Zerstören der LED führen.

 

LED Rot

Jede LED muss mit einem entsprechenden Vorwiderstand betrieben werden um den Strom auf, den im Datenblatt angegebenen, Betriebsstrom zu begrenzen.

Beispiel:

Eine rote LED mit einer Durchlassspannung von 2.1V und einem Betriebsstrom von 20mA soll an eine Versorgungsspannung von 5V angeschlossen werden.

Somit ergibt sich der Vorwiederstand R_{v}= \frac{U_{b} - U_{D}}{I_{B}} = \frac{5V - 2.1V}{0.02A} = 145 \Omega

Somit wäre der nächst größere Wiederstand der E15-Reihe zu verwenden: Rv = 150 Ohm

In diesem Zuge sollte man die Verlustleistung die am Widerstand abfällt beachten. Bei Schaltungen mit mehreren LEDs kann diese die Leistung des Widerstandes überschreiten.

Die Verlustleistung wird folgendermaßen errechnet: P_{v}=\frac{U_{R}^{2}}{R_{V}}=\frac{5V-2.1V}{150\Omega }=0,056W

Standardmäßig erhältliche Widerstände haben eine maximale Verlustleistung zwischen 0,25W bis 1W

 

61 thoughts on “LEDs anschließen

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